The 2007 Tsunami Sedimentology Seminar
In order to make progress in
tsunami sedimentology, we want to gather those who have thought specifically
about tsunami sediment transport and other sedimentological aspects of tsunamis
and their deposits [and erosional features], or related deposits. We will
be asking you to [attempt to] treat one or two simple benchmark sets of data,
as well as to present some of your own case histories. The focus will be on coastal plain/estuarine settings, rather
Among fundamental questions we would like to
answer from tsunami deposits are:
big was the wave?
was the water depth?
- Can we
tell if there was a bore?
- Can we
determine the slope[s] of the water surface?
fast was the water flowing?
many waves were there?
there evidence for reversals in transport [e.g., reflected waves?]
else can a deposit tell us? [e.g., can it tell us about wavelength
To answer these questions, we want to ask:
are different approaches to the problem, their strengths and drawbacks?
different approaches work [better] to answer certain [different]
assumptions need to be made to answer the questions? [e.g., is the deposit
suspended load, can we assume quasi-steady, uniform flow,.]
- How do
vegetation and other roughness elements affect the flow and the deposit?
does thickness of a deposit vary, and why? What are effects of
can deposit geometry and internal structure[s] tell us?
can vertical and lateral trends in grading and sorting tell us?
are recommended sampling strategies?
are recommended methods of [grain size] analyses?
Where are the best places to sample/study
deposits in order to answer these questions? [e.g., lakes are good for
recurrence intervals, but not so good for hydrodyanmics]
are the similarities and differences among deposits of tsunamis, storms,
floods and turbidity currents?
are the paths forward?
we set up more benchmarks?
experiments would we like to see?
are recommended means of training more students and young scientists to
move us forward?
When: April 30 - May 3
Where: UW's Friday Harbor Laboratories on San Juan
Island, north of Seattle.
Housing and Catering: Housing will be dorm rooms and small cabins
at Friday Harbor
labs and catered food will be provided.
Arriving at Friday Harbor:
We will depart from the University of
Washington in Seattle
for the Anacortes ferry terminal in mini-vans early on Monday morning 30 April.
Departing Friday Harbor:
We will depart from Friday Harbor
on the morning of Thursday May 3 and arrive in Seattle
in the early afternoon.
Recommended Readings and Websites
S., Svendensen, J., Mangerud, J., (1997) Tsunami sedimentary facies deposited by
the Storegga tsunami in shallow marine basins and coastal lakes, western
Norway. Sedimentology, 44, 1115-1131.
G., Jaffe, B., (2003) Erosion and Sedimentation from the 17 July, 1998 Papua
new Guinea Tsunami. Pure appl. Geophys, 160, 1969-1999.
A., Nishimura, Y., Gelfenbaum, G., Kamataki, T., Triyono, R., (2006)
sedimentary deposits of the 26 December 2004 tsunami on the northwest coast of
Aceh, Indonesia, Earth Plants Space, 58, 253-258.
Higman, B., Bourgeois,
J., (in press) Deposits of the 1992 Nicaragua Tsunami
B., Gelfenbaum, G., (in press) A simple model for calculation tsunami flow
speed from tsunami deposits, Sedimentary Geology
R., Gelfenbaum, G., Jaffe, B., (in press)
Physical criteria for distinguishing sandy tsunami and storm deposits
using modern examples
reports the field team in Sumatra
studying the 28
March 2005 and 26
tsunamis and earthquakes
The 26 December 2004 Indian
Ocean Tsunami: Initial Findings from Sumatra
Based on Survey Conducted January 20-29, 2005
The December 26, 2004 Indian
Ocean Tsunami: Initial Findings on Tsunami Sand
Damage, and Inundation in Sri
Based on Survey Conducted January 9-15, 2005
Study of Tsunami Deposits formed during the 2001 Peru Tsunami:
Based on Survey Conducted September 4-18, 2001
Study of Tsunami Deposits formed during the 1998 Papua New Guinea Tsunami:
Based on Survey Conducted September 29 to
October 7, 1998
Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-13
Tsunami Deposit Database
B., Jaffe, B., Gelfenbaum, G. and Peterson, C., 2003, Cascadia tsunami
database: U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-13, 19 p. plus
database and GIS coverage